Step 1: Cut the cabbage in half lengthwise (from stem to top), discarding any blemished leaves on the outside.
Step 2: Melt 1 tablespoon butter in a skillet. Add the chorizo, onion, jalapeños, and cilantro and cook over medium-high heat until the sausage and onion are browned, 5 to 8 minutes, using a wooden spoon to break up any large chunks of sausage. Drain the mixture in a strainer over a bowl. Paint the top and outside of the cabbage halves with the sausage fat, discarding any excess. Place the sausage mixture in the bowl and let cool to room temperature, then stir in the cheese. Mound this mixture atop the cabbage halves and top each with 2 tablespoons butter. The cabbage can be prepared several hours ahead to this stage and refrigerated.
Step 3: Set up your smoker following the manufacturer’s instructions and preheat to 250 degrees. Add the wood as specified by the manufacturer.
Step 4: Smoke the cabbage until browned on the outside and very tender, 3 to 4 hours. Use a slender metal skewer to test for doneness: it should pierce the cabbage easily. Transfer the cabbage to a platter and show it off, then cut each in half lengthwise for serving. Dig in.